1. States of Matter. The Atom and the Periodic Table
1.3. The Birth of Chemistry
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When was chemistry born?
Was chemistry born when metallurgy started to develop?
The bronze age (3200 – 500 BC)
- Bronze = alloy of copper and tin.
- Lower melting point than copper, yet harder.
- Suitable for e.g. weapons – or giant lurs!
The iron age (500 BC – 800 AD)
- Different times in different parts of the world!
- Iron age reached the Nordic countries last.
- Bog iron burned with charcoal.
- Iron with different carbon content obtained ⇒ different qualities.
The ancient philosophers
Was chemistry born when the first philosophers pondered upon what materia was?
Thales of Miletus (625 – 545 BC)
- “Father of philosophy”
- “Water is the permanent entity.”
- It can change form …
- No experiments!
Empedocles (490 – 434 BC)
- Showed that air is not empty space!
- Put your finger on top of a straw.
- Place the straw in a glass of soda.
- The soda doesn't enter the straw until you remove your finger ⇒ air is some kind of matter!
- “All matter is made up of water, air, earth, and fire.”
Democritus (460 – 370 BC)
- Proposes the first “atomic theory”.
- “Atomos” in Greek means “indivisible”.
- Favor the idea of four (or five) elements.
- The idea of the four elements persists for 2000 years …
The age of alchemy
Was chemistry born when alchemists first tried to transmute metals?
- Europe’s monks give science “artificial ventilation”.
- Science instead flourishes in the Arabic world.
- Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (“Geber”)
Hennig Brand: The last alchemist
The fathers of modern chemistry
Robert Boyle: The first chemist
- “The Sceptical Chymist” (1661).
- Gets rid of “al-” in “alchemy”, and also the magical/mystical part.
- Chemistry must be based on experiments!
- Distinguishes mixtures from compounds.
- Experiments with gases: Sound requires a medium.
- Substances consist of particles with different sizes.
The discovery of oxygen
- Joseph Priestley publishes his findings on "flammable air" 1175.
- Antoine Lavoisier realizes the role of oxygen in combustions, gives oxygen its name.
- (Lavoisier also discovers hydrogen, the conservation of mass, constructs the metric system, writes list of elements …)
Jöns Jacob Berzelius develops the chemical language
- Gives the chemical elements their symbols: H, C, N, O, Fe etc. (1813)
- Introduces chemical formulas.
- Coins the terms catalysis, polymer, protein …
- Compiles a list of atomic weights of the known elements.
- 1. States of Matter. The Atom and the Periodic Table
- 1.1. Matter. States of Matter
- 1.2. Elements and Chemical Compounds. Pure Substances and Mixtures
- 1.3. The Birth of Chemistry
- 1.4. Atomic Theory. The Atomic Model
- 1.5. Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Atomic Mass
- 1.6. Electron Configurations
- 1.7. Beyond Bohr's Atomic Model
- 1.8. Redox Reactions
- 1.9. The Structure of the Periodic Table
- 1.10. The Noble Gases
- 1.11. The Alkali Metals and the Halogens
- 1.12. The Alkaline Earth Metals and the Oxygen Group
- 1.13. A Few of the Elements in Group 13, 14, and 15
- 2. Chemical Calculations
- 2.1. Physical Quantity, Magnitude, and Units
- 2.2. Atomic Mass, Molecular Mass, and Unit Mass
- 2.3. Amount of Substance, Molar Mass, and Mass
- 2.4. Stoichiometry. Conservation of mass
- 2.5. Water of Crystallization
- 2.6. Calculating the Formula of a Chemical Compound
- 2.7. From Empirical to Molecular Formulas
- 2.8. Equivalent Amounts of Substance and Masses
- 2.9. Gases and Pressure
- 2.10. Concentrations
- 2.11. Dilutions
- 2.12. Yield
- 2.13. Limiting Reactants
- 3. Chemical Bonding
- 3.1. How Ionic Compounds are Formed
- 3.2. Precipitations
- 3.3. Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds
- 3.4. Ionic Bonds
- 3.5. Properties of Ionic Compounds
- 3.6. Metal Bonding
- 3.7. Covalent Bonding
- 3.8. Polar Covalent Bonding
- 3.9. Dipoles. Polar and non-polar Molecules
- 3.10. The VSEPR Theory
- 3.11. Hydrogen Bonding. The Peculiar Water
- 3.12. Equals Solves Equal
- 3.13. Solubility of Gases in Water
- 3.14. Solubility of Salts in Water
- 4. Thermochemistry
- 5. Chemical Equilibrium
- 5.1. Reaction Rates
- 5.2. The Law of Mass Action
- 5.3. Calculations on Chemical Equilibrium
- 5.4. Heterogenous Equilibria. Solubility Product
- 5.5. Is the System at Equilibrium? The Reaction Quotient Q
- 5.6. Changing the Concentrations in a System in Equilibrium.
- 5.7. Diluting or Compressing Systems in Equilibrium, or Changing the Temperature
- 6. Acids and bases
- 7. Oxidation and Reduction
- 8. Electrochemistry
- 9. Organic Chemistry
- 9.1. Alkanes
- 9.2. Chain Isomers. Nomenclature
- 9.3. Haloalkanes
- 9.4. Nucleophilic Substitution
- 9.5. Alkenes
- 9.6. Electrophilic Addition. Markovnikov’s Rule
- 9.7. Elimination
- 9.8. Alkynes
- 9.9. Arenes and Aromatic Compounds
- 9.10. Alcohols
- 9.11. Oxidation of Alcohols
- 9.12. Aldehydes and Ketones
- 9.13. Thiols and Disulfides
- 9.14. Ethers
- 9.15. Amines
- 9.16. Nitro Compounds and Organic Nitrates
- 9.17. Carboxylic Acids
- 9.18. More on Carboxylic Acids
- 9.19. Stereoisomerism
- 9.20. Esters
- 9.21. Lipids
- 9.22. Mono-, Oligo-, and Polysaccharides
- 9.23. Amino Acids
- 9.24. Nucleotides
- 10. Biochemistry
- 10.1. Proteins
- 10.2. Enzymes
- 10.3. Catabolic Processes
- 10.4. Carrier Molecules
- 10.5. Glycolysis
- 10.6. Beta-oxidation
- 10.7. The Citric Acid Cycle
- 10.8. The Metabolism of Amino Acids
- 10.9. The Electron Transport Chain
- 10.10. Anabolic Processes
- 10.11. Gluconeogenesis and Fatty Acid Synthesis
- 10.12. DNA: Structure and Function
- 11. Analytical chemistry