1.10. The Noble Gases

The Noble Gases

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Which are the noble gases?

The noble gases' location in the periodic table.The noble gases' location in the periodic table.

The noble gases are:

  • Helium, He
  • Neon, Ne
  • Argon, Ar
  • Krypton, Kr
  • Xenon, Xe
  • Radon, Rn
  • Oganesson, Og

Noble gas structure

All the noble gases have a full valence shell.

  • He: 2 valence electrons
  • Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, Og: 8 valence electrons

Full valence shell = extra stable

  • The noble gases ar inert (they don’t react with anything).
  • The noble gases are mostly found in their pure (noble) form.

Some common characteristics

  • Inert
  • Color-, odorless (oganesson: unknown)
  • Very low melting points
Deflated helium balloons cause serious litter.Deflated helium balloons cause serious litter. Colorful neon lights in Tokyo, Japan.Colorful neon lights in Tokyo, Japan.

Some uses

Helium

  • Cooling agent (–269 °C)
  • ”Fun things”

Neon

  • Lights (neon lights)

Argon is used in welding to prevent the metal from reacting with the oxygen in the air.Argon is used in welding to prevent the metal from reacting with the oxygen in the air.Argon

  • Welding: Prevents the oxygen in the air from reacting with the metal.
  • Incandescent bulbs: Atmosphere with Ar + N2, prevents the filament from combusting.

Radon

  • Radioactive
  • Harmful for smokers.

Oganesson

  • The heaviest (and last?) element of the periodic table.
  • Characteristics: Highly radioactive, otherwise unknown